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[(large-scale)-243(morphological)-248(changes)-243(and)-239(have)-229(largely)-220(ig-)]TJ T* [(nored)-344(smaller)-339(scale)-339(evolutionar)-46(y)-330(changes)-317(in)-321(morphol-)]TJ T* [(ogy)28(.)-362(W)83(e)-358(believe)-358(that)-358(it)-358(is)-353(in)-362(the)-353(examination)-349(of)-353(these)]TJ T* [(smaller)-330(changes)-330(that)-326(the)-321(union)-326(of)-321(functional)-303(morphol-)]TJ T* [(ogy)-349(and)-349(developmental)-321(biology)-344(will)-339(be)-344(most)-339(fruitful.)]TJ 1 -1.1 TD [(The)-252(degree)-248(of)-243(morphological)-239(change)-234(associated)-206(with)]TJ -1 -1.1 TD [(speciation)-495(level)-495(events)-486(has)-486(been)-491(largely)-482(ignored)-477(by)]TJ T* [(evolutionar)-46(y)-404(developmental)-390(biologists.)-385(The)-390(ability)-381(of)]TJ T* [(functional)-349(morphology)-349(to)-344(inform)-339(developmental)-312(stud-)]TJ T* [(ies)-349(depends)-344(largely)-349(on)-349(the)-344(structures)-339(being)-330(examined.)]TJ T* [(If)-468(we)-468(are)-468(interested)-468(only)-468(in)-468(major)-468(changes)-454(in)-463(body)]TJ T* [(plan,)-353(this)-353(will)-349(fall)-349(squarely)-349(within)-349(the)-349(pur)-46(view)-335(of)-339(ex-)]TJ T* [(isting)-349(evo-devo)-344(studies,)-339(where)-326(functional)-312(morphology)]TJ T* [(contributes)-395(little.)-390(Functional)-390(morphology)-390(can)-385(make)-381(a)]TJ T* [(valuable)-275(contribution)-275(in)-271(evo-devo)-266(studies)-257(that)-252(examine)]TJ T* [(much)-454(smaller)-445(morphological)-450(changes.)-440(Both)-440(types)-436(of)]TJ T* [(studies)-454(are)-454(essential)-450(in)-454(establishing)-445(the)-440(types)-440(of)-450(de-)]TJ T* [(velopmental)-450(mechanisms)-440(associated)-440(with)-436(both)-436(lower)]TJ T* [(and)-417(higher)-413(order)-413(levels)-404(of)-408(morphological)-390(differentia-)]TJ T* [(tion)-289(across)-289(clades.)-280(Functional)-284(studies)-275(allow)-275(us)-266(to)-266(iden-)]TJ T* [(tify)-459(key)-459(heritable)-450(per)-14(formance)-450(variables)-436(whose)-431(gen-)]TJ T* [(eration)-440(can)-440(then)-440(be)-436(examined)-436(using)-436(the)-431(tools)-427(of)-431(the)]TJ T* [(developmental)-326(biologist.)]TJ 26.945 64.9 TD (F)Tj 8 0 0 7.5 359.75 712 Tm -0.002 Tc [(UN)-5(CTI)-7(O)1(N)-5(A)1(L)]TJ 10.9 0 -0 10 409.95 712 Tm 0 Tc (M)Tj 8 0 0 7.5 419.649 712 Tm -0.002 Tc [(ORPHO)-5(L)-3(OG)-5(Y)-436(O)-5(F)]TJ 10.9 0 -0 10 486.399 712 Tm 0 Tc (F)Tj 8 0 0 7.5 492.45 712 Tm 0.002 Tc [(EE)7(DING)-451(IN)]TJ 10.9 0 -0 10 402.549 701 Tm 0 Tc (Z)Tj 8 0 0 7.5 409.2 701 Tm (EBRAFISH)Tj 10.9 0 -0 10 451.399 701 Tm (L)Tj 8 0 0 7.5 458.049 701 Tm 0.003 Tc [(ARV)6(A)0(E)]TJ /F6 1 Tf 10.9 0 0 10 324 685.5 Tm 0 Tc [(Functional)-339(morphology)-335(of)-344(early)-339(ontogenetic)-326(stages)]TJ /F4 1 Tf 0.9999 -1.55 TD [(Ontogenetic)-399(studies)-395(in)-399(functional)-395(morphology)-385(pro-)]TJ -0.9999 -1.1 TD [(vide)-445(a)-445(power)-14(ful)-440(approach)-445(to)-445(understanding)-436(the)-427(rela-)]TJ T* [(tionship)-326(between)-321(changing)-321(form)-317(and)-312(function.)-298(Studies)]TJ T* [(that)-344(encompass)-344(a)-344(wide)-344(range)-339(of)-344(developmental)-317(stages)]TJ T* [(can)-404(examine)-399(var)-46(ying)-404(degrees)-399(of)-395(morphological)-376(com-)]TJ T* [(plexity)-376(and)-376(concomitant)-362(functional)-358(differences)-339(within)]TJ T* [(genetically)-303(identical)-294(individuals.)-294(Such)-289(functional)-271(stud-)]TJ T* [(ies)-376(can)-376(highlight)-372(the)-372(functional)-372(consequences)-358(of)-367(ana-)]TJ T* [(tomical)-509(differences)-505(as)-509(pronounced)-505(as)-505(those)-505(seen)-491(in)]TJ T* [(comparative)-312(studies)-307(without)-303(the)-303(added)-303(logistical)-280(prob-)]TJ T* [(lem)-362(of)-367(adequately)-362(assessing)-349(phylogenetic)-330(relationship)]TJ T* [(\(Har)-46(vey)-349(and)-349(Pagel,)-349(1991\).)-349(Signi\256cant)-339(anatomical)-307(dif-)]TJ T* [(ferences)-289(are)-289(often)-294(associated)-284(with)-280(ontogeny)-275(of)-275(feeding)]TJ T* [(structures)-326(\(Liem)-335(and)-344(Summers,)-330(2000\).)]TJ 1 -1.1 TD [(Feeding)-518(studies)-514(have)-514(played)-514(a)-514(major)-509(role)-505(within)]TJ -1 -1.1 TD [(functional)-546(morphology)-541(\(Lauder)83(,)-537(1980)]TJ /F6 1 Tf 15.899 0 TD (a)Tj /F4 1 Tf 0.5001 0 TD [(;)-541(Lauder)-528(and)]TJ -16.3991 -1.1 TD [(Shaffer)83(,)-252(1993;)-252(Liem,)-248(1974,)-252(1979;)-248(W)83(ainwright)-239(and)-234(Lau-)]TJ T* [(der)83(,)-294(1986;)-289(W)83(estneat,)-284(1990;)-284(Liem)-284(and)-280(Summers,)-257(2000\).)]TJ T* [(Emphasis)-422(has)-417(been)-422(placed)-417(on)-417(feeding)-417(due)-413(to)-417(its)-408(im-)]TJ T* [(portance)-417(not)-417(only)-427(for)-422(ensuring)-422(sur)-46(vival,)-417(but)-413(also)-408(for)]TJ T* [(attaining)-252(a)-252(healthy)-252(reproductive)-239(state.)-234(Early)-234(life)-220(histor)-46(y)]TJ T* [(stages)-468(consistently)-468(show)-468(greater)-459(mortality)-450(than)-450(later)]TJ T* [(ontogenetic)-408(stages,)-408(and)-413(feeding)-408(success)-404(may)-399(play)-395(an)]TJ T* [(important)-500(role)-495(in)-495(sur)-46(vival)-495(during)-491(these)-486(early)-477(stages)]TJ T* [(\(Houde)-413(and)-417(Schekter)83(,)-413(1980\).)-413(Ontogenetic)-399(changes)-390(in)]TJ T* [(feeding)-688(morphology)-688(provide)-679(an)-683(ideal)-679(scenario)-665(in)]TJ T* [(which)-399(to)-399(examine)-399(the)-395(relationship)-390(between)-385(form)-381(and)]TJ T* (function.)Tj 1 -1.1 TD [(The)-477(functional)-472(morphology)-468(of)-468(feeding)-463(by)-468(aquatic)]TJ -1 -1.1 TD [(organisms)-642(has)-642(been)-642(extensively)-633(studied.)-619(However)83(,)]TJ T* [(since)-404(most)-395(research)-399(has)-395(been)-399(done)-395(on)-399(adults,)-390(the)-390(ef-)]TJ T* [(fects)-298(of)-298(viscous)-298(forces)-294(have)-294(been)-298(largely)-284(ignored.)-275(Due)]TJ T* [(to)-381(their)-376(small)-376(size,)-372(lar)-46(val)-372(\256sh)-376(perceive)-367(their)-362(\257uid)-362(en-)]TJ T* [(vironment)-312(as)-312(signi\256cantly)-312(more)-312(sticky)-303(or)-298(viscous)-289(than)]TJ T* [(do)-436(adults.)-431(The)-431(dimensionless)-422(Reynolds)-422(number)-417(\(Re\))]TJ 0 -1.1101 TD [(represents)-404(the)-404(relative)-404(contributions)-390(of)-395(inertial)-381(forces)]TJ T* [(versus)-339(viscous)-335(forces)-330(in)-344(a)-349(hydrodynamic)-330(situation:)]TJ 8.6009 -1.6699 TD (Re)Tj /F1 1 Tf 10 0 0 10 433.299 257.1 Tm (5)Tj /F4 1 Tf 10.9 0 -0 10 445.1 257.1 Tm [(UL)-147(/)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 10 0 0 10 465.799 257.1 Tm (y)Tj /F4 1 Tf 10.9 0 -0 10 324 240.5 Tm [(Where,)-326(L)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 10 0 0 10 369.549 240.5 Tm (5)Tj /F4 1 Tf 10.9 0 -0 10 381.45 240.5 Tm [(characteristic)-321(length,)-321(U)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 10 0 0 10 487.85 240.5 Tm (5)Tj /F4 1 Tf 10.9 0 -0 10 499.649 240.5 Tm [(velocity)28(,)-307(and)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 10 0 0 10 559.599 240.5 Tm (y)Tj -23.5599 -1.1101 TD (5)Tj /F4 1 Tf 10.9 0 -0 10 335.1 229.399 Tm [(kinematic)-248(viscosity)-252(of)-248(the)-243(water)-243(\(V)83(ogel,)-239(1981;)-229(W)83(ebb)]TJ -1.0183 -1.1099 TD [(and)-477(W)83(eihs,)-468(1986;)-472(W)83(eihs,)-468(1980\).)-468(Reynolds)-459(numbers,)]TJ T* [(which)-367(var)-46(y)-367(over)-362(several)-362(orders)-358(of)-358(magnitude,)-344(signi\256-)]TJ T* [(cantly)-500(affect)-495(the)-491(lives)-491(of)-495(aquatic)-482(organisms)-472(\(V)83(ogel,)]TJ T* [(1981\).)-326(By)-330(convention)-326(\(W)83(ebb)-326(and)-321(W)83(eihs,)-317(1986\),)-317(Re)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 10 0 0 10 555.7 185 Tm (,)Tj /F4 1 Tf 10.9 0 -0 10 324 173.899 Tm [(20)-298(indicate)-294(that)-289(viscous)-289(forces)-284(predominate,)-280(Re)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 10 0 0 10 536.299 173.899 Tm (.)Tj /F4 1 Tf 10.9 0 -0 10 547.65 173.899 Tm (200)Tj -20.5184 -1.1099 TD [(indicate)-280(that)-280(inertial)-280(forces)-266(predominate,)-261(and)-252(Reynolds)]TJ T* [(numbers)-422(intermediate)-417(to)-422(these)-413(extremes)-404(indicate)-395(that)]TJ T* [(both)-642(forces)-638(must)-638(be)-642(taken)-638(into)-633(account)-624(\(Fuiman,)]TJ T* [(1986\).)-335(Zebra\256sh)-339(lar)-46(vae)-330(are)-330(usually)-326(within)-321(the)-317(viscous)]TJ T* [(and)-349(intermediate)-317(regimes)-330(\(Fuiman)-335(and)-344(W)83(ebb,)-339(1988\).)]TJ 1 -1.11 TD [(Several)-307(studies)-298(have)-303(shown)-303(that)-294(\256sh)-294(lar)-46(vae,)-275(trapped)]TJ -1 -1.11 TD [(within)-404(a)-399(low)-399(Re)-399(environment,)-399(function)-395(in)-395(an)-390(aquatic)]TJ T* [(world)-385(signi\256cantly)-385(different)-376(from)-381(that)-376(of)-372(adults)-367(\(Fui-)]TJ T* [(man)-257(and)-252(W)83(ebb,)-248(1988;)-252(Hunter)-243(and)-248(Coyne,)-243(1982\).)-239(These)]TJ 0 -1.1 TD [(basic)-326(differences)-317(in)-321(their)-312(physical)-303(environment)-284(should)]TJ ET endstream endobj 10 0 obj <>stream x50D9n,.Wb^Y45Ƽ$3<gjAvTC8vI,B#PlN5MfݲRYM:RbXKLEꍫK{4 Sr)NgEJ5 endstream endobj 11 0 obj <>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI]>>/Rotate 0/Type/Page>> endobj 12 0 obj [13 0 R 14 0 R 15 0 R] endobj 13 0 obj <>stream x+| endstream endobj 14 0 obj <>stream 0 0 0 0 k BX /GS2 gs EX 1 i 48 747 504 -10 re f 48 723 240 -660 re f 312 723 240 -660 re f BT /F4 1 Tf 10.9 0 -0 10 48 737 Tm 0 0 0 1 k 0 Tc [(224)-16858(L.)-349(P.)-344(H)]TJ 8 0 0 7.5 281.649 737 Tm (ERNA)Tj 2.2001 0.2399 TD 0 Tw (\302)Tj 0.525 -0.2399 TD -0.001 Tc [(ND)-4(EZ)]TJ /F6 1 Tf 8.1 0 0 7.5 328.299 737 Tm 0 Tc [(ET)-340(AL.)]TJ /F4 1 Tf 10.9 0 -0 10 48 712 Tm [(be)-339(incorporated)-335(into)-330(models)-326(of)-326(feeding)-326(mode.)-321(For)-312(ex-)]TJ 0 -1.1 TD [(ample,)-362(most)-362(models)-358(assume)-362(that)-358(during)-358(suction)-349(feed-)]TJ T* [(ing,)-381(inertial)-381(forces)-376(play)-376(an)-376(important)-372(role)-367(in)-376(molding)]TJ T* [(kinematics)-569(\(Lauder)83(,)-564(1980)]TJ /F6 1 Tf 10.7982 0 TD (b)Tj /F4 1 Tf 0.4999 0 TD [(\).)-564(However)83(,)-569(due)-564(to)-564(their)]TJ -11.2981 -1.1 TD [(small)-317(size,)-317(inertial)-307(forces)-303(are)-303(relatively)-294(unimportant)-271(in)]TJ T* [(the)-404(lives)-399(of)-408(lar)-46(vae.)-404(Given)-399(that)-399(most)-395(anamniotes)-376(feed)]TJ T* [(aquatically)-422(while)-422(at)-417(a)-417(ver)-46(y)-422(small)-417(size,)-408(the)-413(effects)-395(of)]TJ T* [(low)-450(Re)-450(on)-454(feeding)-454(kinematics)-440(should)-445(be)-445(known)-445(for)]TJ T* [(these)-339(important)-330(life)-335(histor)-46(y)-339(stages.)]TJ 1 -1.1 TD [(There)-376(are)-372(a)-376(number)-372(of)-381(important)-372(constructional)-344(is-)]TJ -1 -1.1 TD [(sues)-408(that)-408(must)-408(be)-408(considered)-408(when)-408(dealing)-404(with)-395(\256sh)]TJ T* [(lar)-46(vae.)-385(Due)-385(to)-390(their)-385(small)-385(size,)-381(lar)-46(val)-381(eyes)-376(take)-376(up)-381(a)]TJ T* [(signi\256cant)-275(portion)-280(of)-275(the)-271(head.)-271(Indeed,)-266(lar)-46(val)-248(zebra\256sh)]TJ T* [(have)-307(eyes)-312(that)-312(are)-303(big)-307(enough)-307(to)-303(be)-303(unaffected)-294(by)-289(dif-)]TJ T* [(fraction,)-321(a)-321(common)-326(problem)-321(encountered)-317(by)-312(small)-298(or)46(-)]TJ T* [(ganisms)-395(\(Easter)-395(and)-395(Nicola,)-385(1996\).)-390(Otten)-385(\(1983\),)-381(in-)]TJ T* [(vestigating)-271(ontogenetic)-266(changes)-257(in)-261(cichlid)-252(cranial)-229(anat-)]TJ T* [(omy)28(,)-385(described)-385(the)-385(potential)-376(constructional)-344(constraint)]TJ T* [(of)-339(the)-339(eye)-330(on)-335(muscles)-335(involved)-330(in)-326(lar)-46(val)-321(feeding.)-298(The)]TJ T* [(eye)-463(at)-468(\256rst)-463(feeding)-468(is)-459(relatively)-459(large)-454(and)-459(often)-450(oc-)]TJ T* [(cludes)-349(the)-344(space)-339(that)-339(later)-339(in)-339(ontogeny)-335(will)-326(house)-326(lat-)]TJ T* [(eral)-399(muscles)-390(of)-395(the)-390(cheek)-395(\(unpublished)-385(data,)-376(L.P)161(.H.\).)]TJ T* [(There)-404(are)-404(two)-408(ways)-404(lar)-46(vae)-404(can)-408(ameliorate)-395(this)-385(prob-)]TJ T* [(lem.)-427(Rearrangement)-417(of)-427(key)-422(skeletal)-413(and)-413(ligamentous)]TJ T* [(connections)-339(could)-339(offset)-335(this)-330(constraint)-326(\(Otten,)-303(1983\).)]TJ T* [(Alternatively)28(,)-381(different)-376(muscles)-376(could)-372(be)-372(used)-372(during)]TJ T* [(lar)-46(val)-431(versus)-427(adult)-427(feeding.)-431(Either)-422(solution)-427(acts)-417(as)-417(a)]TJ T* [(`)69(`compensator)-46(y)-312(design')69(')-303(t)0(o)-307(deal)-303(with)-303(space)-280(constraints)]TJ T* [(imposed)-339(by)-349(a)-344(relatively)-326(large)-335(eye)-339(\(Liem,)-335(1991\).)]TJ 1 -1.1 TD [(Evolutionar)-46(y)-615(histor)-46(y)-615(plays)-610(an)-615(important)-606(role)-596(in)]TJ -1 -1.1 TD [(molding)-344(present-day)-339(kinematic)-326(patterns)-321(\(Liem,)-303(1993\),)]TJ T* [(thus)-417(rigorous)-413(use)-413(of)-417(the)-417(comparative)-408(method)-408(is)-408(now)]TJ T* 0.028 Tc [(commonplace)-467(in)-463(functional)-454(morphological)-440(studies)]TJ T* 0 Tc [(\(Har)-46(vey)-454(and)-454(Pagel,)-454(1991;)-450(Lauder)]TJ /F6 1 Tf 14.6055 0 TD [(et)-445(al.)]TJ /F4 1 Tf 2.1972 0 TD [(,)-450(1993\).)-445(De-)]TJ -16.8027 -1.1 TD [(velopmental)-408(histor)-46(y)-408(may)-408(also)-404(play)-404(an)-399(important)-390(role)]TJ T* [(in)-422(shaping)-422(adult)-422(feeding)-417(patterns.)-408(Both)-413(\256sh)-413(and)-413(am-)]TJ T* [(phibians)-404(must)-404(successfully)-395(compete)-390(in)-390(two)-390(markedly)]TJ T* [(different)-307(arenas)-307(before)-303(reaching)-303(reproductive)-284(age.)-280(The)]TJ T* [(dramatic)-261(morphological)-257(reconstruction)-252(that)-243(occurs)-229(dur)46(-)]TJ T* [(ing)-344(amphibian)-339(metamorphosis)-330(is)-326(accompanied)-321(by)-317(sig-)]TJ T* [(ni\256cant)-362(functional)-367(changes)-358(as)-362(these)-358(organisms)-344(switch)]TJ T* [(from)-280(aquatic)-271(to)-275(terrestrial)-266(feeding.)-266(Given)-261(that)-252(the)-252(feed-)]TJ T* [(ing)-266(apparatus)-261(changes)-252(completely)-248(during)-239(metamorpho-)]TJ T* [(sis)-385(in)-395(most)-390(amphibians,)-385(the)-385(kinematic)-372(patterns)-362(estab-)]TJ T* [(lished)-569(during)-569(aquatic)-560(feeding)-564(are)-560(mostly)-555(lost)-550(after)]TJ T* [(metamorphosis.)-413(This)-404(is)-408(a)-408(potentially)-404(much)-404(more)-395(im-)]TJ T* [(portant)-431(issue)-427(in)-431(\256sh)-431(since)-427(they)-431(do)-431(not)-431(generally)-417(un-)]TJ T* [(dergo)-633(radical)-628(morphological)-619(transformations)-592(which)]TJ T* [(lead)-482(to)-482(the)-477(establishment)-472(of)-477(different)-468(feeding)-459(struc-)]TJ T* [(tures.)-307(Whether)-307(neuromuscular)-294(circuitr)-46(y)-289(and)-284(associated)]TJ T* [(musculoskeletal)-312(machiner)-46(y)-307(established)-294(early)-289(in)-280(ontog-)]TJ T* [(eny)-349(affects)-326(adult)-339(feeding)-335(is)-344(unknown.)]TJ 1 -1.1 TD [(Limitations)-491(in)-495(experimental)-482(techniques)-477(have)-472(until)]TJ -1 -1.1 TD [(recently)-477(slowed)-472(progress)-468(in)-472(understanding)-463(the)-459(func-)]TJ T* [(tional)-606(morphology)-601(of)-601(feeding)-601(in)-601(early)-587(ontogenetic)]TJ T* [(stages.)-463(However)83(,)-468(although)-463(it)-463(remains)-454(dif\256cult)-454(to)-454(di-)]TJ T* [(rectly)-358(measure)-349(muscle)-349(activity)-349(and)-349(buccal)-339(pressure)-326(in)]TJ T* [(small)-367(lar)-46(vae,)-367(advances)-362(in)-367(video)-367(recording)-358(technology)]TJ T* [(now)-312(allow)-312(the)-307(\256lming)-312(of)-312(lar)-46(val)-303(feeding)-303(at)-298(a)-294(ver)-46(y)-294(high)]TJ T* [(frame)-252(rate)-248(\(1,000)-252(frames/sec\).)-239(Careful)-225(quanti\256cation)-202(of)]TJ 24.2202 64.9 TD [(kinematic)-349(patterns)-349(during)-344(lar)-46(val)-339(feeding)-335(coupled)-321(with)]TJ 0 -1.1 TD [(immunohistochemistr)-46(y)28(,)-289(to)-294(carefully)-284(assess)-266(lar)-46(val)-257(feed-)]TJ T* [(ing)-284(structures,)-284(will)-280(allow)-275(us)-271(to)-275(better)-266(understand)-252(lar)-46(val)]TJ T* [(feeding)-339(mechanics.)]TJ 1 -1.1 TD [(W)83(e)-404(will)-408(\256rst)-404(describe)-399(feeding)-404(kinematics)-390(of)-390(lar)-46(val)]TJ -1 -1.1 TD [(zebra\256sh.)-335(By)-335(combining)-335(these)-326(kinematic)-312(pro\256les)-303(with)]TJ T* [(an)-317(examination)-317(of)-307(muscular)-307(anatomy)-303(we)-298(then)-298(propose)]TJ T* [(the)-459(likely)-459(sequence)-459(of)-454(muscle)-450(\256ring)-450(during)-450(feeding.)]TJ T* [(Finally)28(,)-321(examination)-317(of)-317(muscle)-307(\256ber)-312(type)-298(composition)]TJ T* [(based)-440(on)-440(immunohistochemical)-431(data)-431(allows)-427(us)-427(to)-436(il-)]TJ T* [(lustrate)-317(how)-307(functional)-307(and)-307(developmental)-294(studies)-275(can)]TJ T* [(lead)-339(to)-349(a)-344(novel)-344(approach)-335(within)-335(evo-devo)-339(studies.)]TJ /F6 1 Tf 0 -1.9 TD [(Feeding)-339(kinematics)]TJ /F4 1 Tf 0.9999 -1.4 TD [(Given)-289(how)-284(much)-284(teleost)-280(lar)-46(vae)-275(differ)-271(from)-266(adults)-252(in)]TJ -0.9999 -1.1 TD [(both)-684(morphology)-683(and)-679(size,)-679(and)-674(thus)-674(concomitant)]TJ T* [(Reynolds)-583(number)83(,)-583(feeding)-587(mechanics)-573(in)-578(these)-569(two)]TJ T* [(stages)-367(are)-372(likely)-372(to)-367(be)-372(different)-358(\(Sanderson)-358(and)-353(Kup-)]TJ T* [(ferberg,)-427(1999\).)-427(While)-417(there)-417(is)-422(variation)-413(in)-413(kinematic)]TJ T* [(pro\256les)-450(of)-454(suction)-450(feeding)-450(among)-445(adult)-440(teleosts,)-422(the)]TJ T* [(typical)-243(feeding)-248(sequence)-239(entails)-234(an)-239(anterior)-225(to)-229(posterior)]TJ T* [(abduction)-349(of)-344(bony)-349(elements)-339(to)-344(create)-330(a)-330(negative)-321(pres-)]TJ T* 0.037 Tc [(sure)-536(within)-536(the)-536(buccal)-532(chamber)-523(\(Lauder)83(,)-518(1985\).)]TJ T* 0 Tc [(Through)-560(the)-555(use)-555(of)-555(electromyography)-550(four)-546(distinct)]TJ T* [(phases)-294(in)-298(feeding)-298(kinematics)-289(of)-294(\256shes)-284(have)-284(been)-271(iden-)]TJ T* [(ti\256ed.)-289(These)-280(are)-280(a)-280(preparator)-46(y)-280(phase,)-275(during)-266(which)-261(the)]TJ T* [(buccal)-541(chamber)-532(is)-537(constricted;)-523(an)-532(expansive)-514(phase,)]TJ T* [(during)-321(which)-321(abduction)-317(of)-312(cranial)-307(elements)-294(effects)-275(re-)]TJ T* [(duced)-303(pressure)-303(within)-298(the)-294(buccal)-289(chamber;)-284(a)-275(compres-)]TJ T* [(sive)-431(phase,)-431(during)-436(which)-436(water)-431(is)-431(moved)-431(out)-431(of)-431(the)]TJ T* [(buccal)-271(chamber)-261(through)-266(adduction)-261(of)-252(cranial)-239(elements;)]TJ T* [(and)-372(a)-367(recover)-46(y)-367(phase)-362(during)-367(which)-362(feeding)-349(morphol-)]TJ T* [(ogy)-716(returns)-711(to)-716(its)-711(original)-706(con\256guration)-697(\(Lauder)83(,)]TJ T* (1980)Tj /F6 1 Tf 1.9999 0 TD (a)Tj /F4 1 Tf 0.5001 0 TD [(;)-381(Lauder)-381(and)-381(Lanyon,)-376(1980;)-381(Liem,)-372(1978;)-372(Liem)]TJ -2.5 -1.1 TD [(and)-330(Osse,)-321(1975\).)-321(For)-326(many)-321(adult)-317(teleosts,)-294(pronounced)]TJ T* [(lateral)-578(abduction)-573(of)-573(both)-578(opercula)-564(and)-569(suspensoria)]TJ T* [(plays)-252(a)-257(key)-257(role)-248(in)-252(generating)-248(a)-243(drop)-248(in)-248(pressure)-225(during)]TJ T* [(the)-633(expansive)-628(phase.)-628(A)-633(preparator)-46(y)-624(phase,)-615(during)]TJ T* [(which)-349(the)-344(buccal)-344(cavity)-349(is)-344(constricted,)-335(has)-335(been)-330(iden-)]TJ T* [(ti\256ed)-362(predominantly)-358(in)-358(advanced)-353(percomorph)-339(teleosts)]TJ T* [(\(Lauder)83(,)-335(1985\).)]TJ 1 -1.1 TD [(Feeding)-376(kinematics)-372(of)-372(\256rst-feeding)-362(lar)-46(val)-349(zebra\256sh)]TJ -1 -1.1 TD [(\(total)-472(length)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 10 0 0 10 372.6 250 Tm (5)Tj /F4 1 Tf 10.9 0 -0 10 386.1 250 Tm [(4)-477(mm;)-477(5)-477(days)-472(post-fertilization\))-440(are)]TJ -6.7982 -1.1 TD [(markedly)-560(different)-555(from)-555(kinematic)-546(pro\256les)-541(of)-546(both)]TJ T* [(adult)-509(zebra\256sh)-509(and)-509(other)-505(adult)-505(teleosts)-482(\(Herna)]TJ 19.5183 0 TD [(\302)-57(ndez,)]TJ -19.5183 -1.1 TD [(2000)-257(and)-257(unpublished)-252(data\).)-248(Lar)-46(val)-239(feeding)-225(kinematics)]TJ T* [(were)-271(characterized)-266(by)-266(a)-261(distinct)-257(preparator)-46(y)-252(phase)-239(dur)46(-)]TJ T* [(ing)-339(which)-335(the)-335(hyoid)-335(was)-326(protracted)-321(\(compare)-312(Fig.)-307(1A)]TJ T* [(and)-422(B\).)-417(While)-413(the)-413(presence)-413(of)-417(a)-413(distinct)-399(preparator)-46(y)]TJ T* [(phase)-362(has)-367(not)-362(been)-367(identi\256ed)-367(in)-367(all)-358(adult)-358(teleosts)-344(\(in-)]TJ T* [(cluding)-284(adult)-280(zebra\256sh\),)-275(among)-280(zebra\256sh)-271(lar)-46(vae)-257(it)-257(was)]TJ T* [(a)-362(consistent)-358(part)-358(of)-353(the)-353(feeding)-353(attack.)-349(When)-335(present,)]TJ T* [(electromyography)-330(has)-326(been)-330(required)-326(to)-321(identify)-317(a)-307(pre-)]TJ T* [(parator)-46(y)-261(phase)-252(in)-257(adult)-252(teleosts)-243(\(Lauder)83(,)-239(1980)]TJ /F6 1 Tf 18.266 0 TD (b)Tj /F4 1 Tf 0.4999 0 TD [(\).)-234(Given)]TJ -18.766 -1.1 TD [(that)-349(this)-349(phase)-349(was)-349(readily)-353(identi\256ed)-349(in)-349(videos)-344(of)-349(lar)46(-)]TJ T* [(vae)-298(\(Fig.)-294(1B\),)-298(such)-298(constriction)-289(of)-284(the)-289(buccal)-271(chamber)]TJ T* [(prior)-408(to)-404(the)-404(expansive)-399(phase)-404(may)-399(be)-395(more)-395(important)]TJ T* [(in)-307(lar)-46(val)-303(\256sh.)-303(The)-298(synergistic)-289(effects)-284(of)-289(a)-284(small)-275(buccal)]TJ T* [(chamber)-427(and)-431(viscous)-427(medium)-427(probably)-427(necessitate)-390(a)]TJ T* [(preparator)-46(y)-312(phase.)-307(Constriction)-303(of)-298(the)-298(buccal)-284(chamber)]TJ ET endstream endobj 15 0 obj <>stream x50D9n,.Wb^Y45Ƽ$3<gjAvTC8vI,B#PlN5MfݲRYM:RbXKLEꍫK{4 Sr)NgEKj5 endstream endobj 16 0 obj <>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI]/XObject<>>>/Rotate 0/Type/Page>> endobj 17 0 obj [18 0 R 19 0 R 20 0 R] endobj 18 0 obj <>stream x+| endstream endobj 19 0 obj <>stream 0 0 0 0 k BX /GS2 gs EX 1 i 60 747 504 -10 re f 60 354 504 -16 re f 60 723 504 -369 re f 60 338 240 -275 re f 324 338 240 -275 re f BT /F4 1 Tf 10.9 0 -0 10 547.65 737 Tm 0 0 0 1 k 0 Tc (225)Tj -31.9679 0 TD 0 Tw (D)Tj 8 0 0 7.5 207.05 737 Tm 0.002 Tc [(EV)5(ELO)5(P)2(MENT)-431(OF)]TJ 10.9 0 -0 10 277.799 737 Tm 0 Tc (Z)Tj 8 0 0 7.5 284.45 737 Tm (EBRAFISH)Tj 10.9 0 -0 10 326.649 737 Tm (F)Tj 8 0 0 7.5 332.7 737 Tm 0.002 Tc [(EE)7(DING)]TJ 10.9 0 -0 10 366.1 737 Tm 0 Tc (M)Tj 8 0 0 7.5 375.799 737 Tm -0.001 Tc [(ORPH)-4(OLOG)-4(Y)]TJ ET q 508 0 0 282 58 439 cm /Im1 Do Q BT 8.7 0 0 8 60 426 Tm 0 Tc (F)Tj 6.4 0 0 6 64.8 426 Tm 0.003 Tc (IG)Tj 8.7 0 0 8 71.55 426 Tm 0 Tc [(.)-276(1)0(.)-1000(Pronounced)-282(preparator)-46(y)-282(and)-276(expansive)-270(phases)-276(characterize)-276(lar)-46(val)-276(feeding)-270(in)-270(zebra\256sh.)-264(Lateral)-259(views)-259(from)-259(video)-264(taken)-259(at)-259(1,000)-253(frames/)]TJ -1.3276 -1.125 TD [(sec)-351(showing:)-345(\(A\))-345(Lateral)-351(pro\256le)-351(of)-345(5)-351(day-old)-351(zebra\256sh)-351(before)-351(the)-351(start)-345(of)-345(the)-351(feeding)-351(strike;)-345(\(B\))-339(Preparator)-46(y)-345(phase)-339(characterized)-328(by)-328(extreme)]TJ T* [(protraction)-408(of)-402(the)-402(hyoid;)-408(and)-408(\(C\))-402(Expansive)-408(phase)-402(characterized)-408(by)-408(extreme)-408(head)-402(elevation)-402(and)-402(hyoid)-402(depression.)-402(The)-402(asterisk)-391(re\257ects)-374(the)]TJ T* [(position)-402(of)-397(the)-402(prey)-402(item,)-397(a)-408(paramecium.)-397(The)-402(arrowhead)-402(in)-402(B)-402(marks)-402(the)-402(posterior)-397(angle)-402(of)-397(Meckel')80(s)-397(cartilage,)-397(indicating)-397(that)-391(the)-391(hyoid)-397(is)]TJ T* [(extremely)-310(protracted.)-310(Also)-310(note)-305(the)-310(decreased)-310(white)-305(area)-310(under)-305(the)-305(eye)-299(in)-305(1B)-305(as)-299(compared)-305(with)-305(1A.)-299(D,)-299(Kinematic)-293(pro\256le)-293(of)-287(hyoid)-287(movements)]TJ T* [(in)-408(a)-408(\256rst-feeding)-408(lar)-46(va)-408(during)-408(a)-408(feeding)-408(strike.)-402(T)29(ime)-408(zero)-408(represents)-402(the)-408(time)-402(at)-402(which)-402(the)-402(hyoid)-408(begins)-402(to)-402(be)-408(protracted.)-391(The)-402(preparator)-46(y)]TJ T* [(phase)-414(\(B\))-414(and)-420(expansive)-414(phase)-420(\(C\))-414(are)-420(indicated.)-414(Hyoid)-420(depression)-420(was)-420(measured)-420(as)-414(the)-414(distance)-414(between)-414(the)-414(bottom)-408(of)-414(the)-414(eye)-414(and)-420(the)]TJ T* 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[(Unlike)-404(kinematic)-404(pro\256les)-404(seen)-404(in)-404(many)-404(adult)-395(tele-)]TJ -1 -1.1 TD [(osts,)-266(dorsal)-261(\256lming)-266(of)-257(feeding)-261(events)-257(revealed)-243(no)-239(oper)46(-)]TJ T* [(cular)-486(abduction)-482(at)-482(any)-482(stage)-477(of)-477(the)-477(strike)-472(\(data)-472(not)]TJ T* [(shown\).)-404(Indeed,)-408(Cubbage)-408(and)-408(Mabee)-399(\(1996\))-395(showed)]TJ T* [(that)-505(ossi\256cation)-505(of)-505(these)-500(predominantly)-486(dermal)-477(ele-)]TJ T* [(ments)-280(is)-275(not)-280(complete)-271(until)-275(9)-271(days)-266(post-fertilization)-225(\(at)]TJ T* [(6)-294(m)0(m)-289(TL\).)-294(Thus)-289(lack)-289(of)-284(opercular)-284(abduction)-275(was)-266(like-)]TJ T* [(ly)-372(due)-367(to)-367(both)-372(lack)-367(of)-362(ossi\256cation)-362(at)-362(this)-358(stage)-353(\(Cub-)]TJ T* [(bage)-367(and)-372(Mabee,)-367(1996\))-372(as)-367(well)-372(as)-367(to)-372(reduced)-362(size)-353(of)]TJ T* [(lateral)-509(muscles)-505(responsible)-500(for)-500(such)-500(abduction.)-486(The)]TJ T* [(size)-321(and)-321(orientation)-317(of)-317(these)-317(lateral)-307(abductors)-294(is)-289(likely)]TJ T* [(in\257uenced)-450(by)-450(the)-445(spatial)-445(constraints)-431(imposed)-431(by)-431(the)]TJ T* [(eye)-344(\(Otten,)-330(1983\).)]TJ 1 -1.1 TD [(Given)-284(this)-280(lack)-280(of)-275(lateral)-271(abduction,)-266(changes)-261(in)-252(buc-)]TJ -1 -1.1 TD [(cal)-330(pressure)-326(are)-326(brought)-330(about)-321(primarily)-317(by)-312(dorsoven-)]TJ T* [(tral)-408(movement)-408(of)-408(the)-408(neurocranium)-404(and)-404(hyoid)-399(\(Figs.)]TJ T* [(1,)-450(2\).)-450(Head)-450(lift)-445(\(Fig.)-445(2A)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 10 0 0 10 174.3 107 Tm (9)Tj /F4 1 Tf 10.9 0 -0 10 177.6 107 Tm [(\))-440(and)-445(mouth)-440(opening)-440(\(Fig.)]TJ -10.789 -1.1 TD (2B)Tj /F1 1 Tf 10 0 0 10 72.7 96 Tm (9)Tj /F4 1 Tf 10.9 0 -0 10 76.05 96 Tm [(\))-482(followed)-482(by)-482(rapid)-477(hyoid)-477(depression)-472(\(Fig.)-463(2C)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 10 0 0 10 293.1 96 Tm (9)Tj /F4 1 Tf 10.9 0 -0 10 296.45 96 Tm (\))Tj -21.6927 -1.1 TD [(occurred)-335(after)-330(the)-326(preparator)-46(y)-321(phase.)-321(The)-317(extreme)-289(de-)]TJ T* [(gree)-266(of)-271(hyoid)-271(depression)-266(\(Fig.)-261(1C\),)-252(combined)-252(with)-243(one)]TJ T* [(of)-372(the)-372(fastest)-367(and)-367(most)-367(pronounced)-362(cranial)-339(elevations)]TJ 24.2202 26.4 TD [(ever)-349(reported)-353(\(see)-349(Gibb,)-344(1997)-353(for)-349(comparisons\),)-326(indi-)]TJ 0 -1.1 TD [(cates)-261(that)-266(dorsal)-257(and)-261(ventral)-252(musculature)-239(is)-234(responsible)]TJ T* [(for)-271(generating)-271(negative)-266(pressure)-257(within)-257(the)-257(buccal)-239(cav-)]TJ T* [(ity)28(.)-317(The)-312(degree)-307(and)-312(velocity)-307(of)-303(cranial)-298(elevation)-275(rivals)]TJ T* 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[(of)-248(all)-243(ontogenetic)-243(stages)-239(considered)-234(\(Fig.)-229(3\).)-220(Moreover)83(,)]TJ T* [(while)-431(many)-436(adult)-431(teleosts)-422(have)-422(kinematic)-417(pro\256les)-408(in)]TJ T* [(which)-463(time-to-hyoid)-463(depression)-459(is)-454(equal)-454(to)-454(the)-454(time)]TJ T* [(required)-335(for)-330(the)-335(hyoid)-335(to)-330(return)-330(t)0(o)-326(its)-321(resting)-307(position,)]TJ T* [(the)-376(time)-376(it)-376(took)-381(for)-376(the)-376(hyoid)-381(to)-381(return)-376(t)0(o)-376(its)-372(starting)]TJ T* [(position)-349(in)-349(zebra\256sh)-349(lar)-46(vae)-344(was)-344(four)-349(times)-339(as)-339(long)-335(as)]TJ T* [(time-to-hyoid)-294(depression)-289(\(Fig.)-280(2C\).)-284(The)-280(prolonged)-271(pe-)]TJ T* [(riod)-261(during)-257(which)-257(the)-252(hyoid)-257(was)-248(returned)-248(to)-243(its)-234(starting)]TJ T* [(position)-385(may)-385(be)-385(due)-381(in)-385(part)-376(to)-385(the)-376(viscous)-376(regime)-367(in)]TJ T* [(which)-422(these)-417(lar)-46(vae)-417(are)-417(feeding)-417(\(Re)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 10 0 0 10 489.2 74 Tm (5)Tj /F4 1 Tf 10.9 0 -0 10 502.1 74 Tm (4.97)Tj /F1 1 Tf 10 0 0 10 525.75 74 Tm (6)Tj /F4 1 Tf 10.9 0 -0 10 538.65 74 Tm (0.54\),)Tj -19.6927 -1.1 TD [(since)-321(there)-317(is)-317(a)-321(signi\256cant)-312(correlation)-307(between)-294(time)-284(to)]TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj <>stream x50D9n,.Wb^Y45Ƽ$3<gjAv2p8,YG4ϡٜk}Ye=cu;fui7,, %KWgG5Xg31.i\Rl՝|=8~ ΊL5 endstream endobj 21 0 obj <>stream AdobedC   !!!!!!''''''''''''''' 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ݾnRW(Af8?B_#Y&36V69E X:[.D(Rũ؄6V$л*Z9ŝE(2B-M?֟M2|H[اkBP!uu2]\0HbFwcUEXQGϮzo*/)f\B$* ?3f͛6lٳf͛6lٳf͛6lٳf͛6lٳf͛6lٳf͛6lٳf͛6lٳf͛6lٳf͛6lٳf͛?ٳf͛6lٳf͛6lٳf͛6lٳf͛6lٳf͛6lٳf͛6lٳf͛6lٳf͛6lٳf͛6lٳf͛6lٳf͛6lٳf͛6lٳf͛6lٳf͛6lٳf͛6lٳf͛6lٳf͟ٳf͛6lٳf͛6lٳf͛6lٳf͛6lٳf͛6lٳdc:Nإp_dXYALڃI"C*.TYw4qf͛6lG״yKn&YU:( љPҸeCemåk4VF cٳf͛6lٳf͛6lٳf͛6lٳf͛6lٳf͛6lٳf͛6lٳf͛6lٳf͛6l endstream endobj 22 0 obj <>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI]/XObject<>>>/Rotate 0/Type/Page>> endobj 23 0 obj [24 0 R 25 0 R 26 0 R] endobj 24 0 obj <>stream x+| endstream endobj 25 0 obj <>stream 0 0 0 0 k BX /GS2 gs EX 1 i 48 747 504 -10 re f 48 263 240 -24 re f 48 723 240 -460 re f 312 485 240 -15 re f 312 723 240 -238 re f 48 239 240 -176 re f 312 470 240 -407 re f BT /F4 1 Tf 10.9 0 -0 10 48 737 Tm 0 0 0 1 k 0 Tc [(226)-16858(L.)-349(P.)-344(H)]TJ 8 0 0 7.5 281.649 737 Tm (ERNA)Tj 2.2001 0.2399 TD 0 Tw (\302)Tj 0.525 -0.2399 TD -0.001 Tc [(ND)-4(EZ)]TJ /F6 1 Tf 8.1 0 0 7.5 328.299 737 Tm 0 Tc [(ET)-340(AL.)]TJ ET 0 g q 213.0499 0 0 373 61.5 348 cm /Im2 Do Q BT /F4 1 Tf 8.7 0 0 8 48 335 Tm 0 0 0 1 k (F)Tj 6.4 0 0 6 52.8 335 Tm 0.003 Tc (IG)Tj 8.7 0 0 8 59.55 335 Tm 0 Tc [(.)-282(2)0(.)-1000(Kinematic)-287(pro\256les)-276(of)-276(head,)-282(mouth)-282(\(gape\),)-270(and)-270(hyoid)-270(move-)]TJ -1.3276 -1.125 TD [(ments)-477(in)-477(a)-477(\256rst-feeding)-477(lar)-46(va)-477(during)-471(a)-471(feeding)-471(strike.)-460(T)29(ime)-465(zero)]TJ T* [(represents)-356(the)-356(point)-362(at)-362(which)-362(mouth)-356(opening)-356(begins.)-356(Insets)-351(show)-345(a)]TJ T* [(magni\256ed)-345(view)-339(of)-339(the)-345(\256rst)-339(part)-333(of)-333(the)-333(strike.)-328(Cranial)-316(elevation)-316(\(A)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 8 0 0 8 282.6 308 Tm (9)Tj /F4 1 Tf 8.7 0 0 8 285.25 308 Tm (\))Tj -27.2701 -1.125 TD [(and)-339(mouth)-339(opening)-339(\(B)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 8 0 0 8 128.35 299 Tm (9)Tj /F4 1 Tf 8.7 0 0 8 131 299 Tm [(\))-328(began)-333(while)-333(the)-328(hyoid)-328(was)-322(still)-310(maximally)]TJ -9.5402 -1.125 TD [(protracted.)-488(The)-488(line)-488(in)-488(C)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 8 0 0 8 141.55 290 Tm (9)Tj /F4 1 Tf 8.7 0 0 8 148.5 290 Tm [(indicates)-488(the)-488(period)-488(during)-483(which)-483(the)]TJ -11.5517 -1.125 TD [(hyoid)-333(is)-328(maximally)-328(protracted)-328(during)-322(the)-316(preparator)-46(y)-310(phase)-299(preced-)]TJ T* [(ing)-379(rapid)-374(depression)-374(of)-368(the)-374(hyoid.)-374(Compare)-374(line)-374(in)-374(2C)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 8 0 0 8 245.149 272 Tm (9)Tj /F4 1 Tf 8.7 0 0 8 251.05 272 Tm [(to)-379(the)-374(line)]TJ -23.3391 -1.125 TD [(in)-345(Figure)-333(1D.)]TJ ET 0 g q 222.0249 0 0 160 321 561 cm /Im3 Do Q BT 8.7 0 0 8 312 548 Tm 0 0 0 1 k (F)Tj 6.4 0 0 6 316.799 548 Tm 0.003 Tc (IG)Tj 8.7 0 0 8 323.549 548 Tm 0 Tc [(.)-264(3)0(.)-1000(Relative)-264(hyoid)-264(depression)-259(is)-253(correlated)-253(with)-247(Reynolds)-241(num-)]TJ -1.3275 -1.125 TD [(ber)-385(regime)-391(and)-391(decreases)-385(with)-391(ontogeny)29(.)-391(When)-385(corrected)-379(for)-374(size,)]TJ T* 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[(sity)-367(that)-362(natural)-362(selection)-362(acts)-353(on.)-362(Many)-353(evolutionar)-46(y)]TJ T* [(developmental)-298(biologists)-294(have)-289(embraced)-284(this)-271(reemerg-)]TJ T* [(ing)-390(\256eld)-390(due)-385(to)-390(its)-385(great)-385(promise)-385(in)-385(uniting)-381(formerly)]TJ T* [(disparate)-326(disciplines.)-317(W)83(e)-317(suggest)-312(that)-307(consideration)-280(of)]TJ T* [(functional)-321(data)-317(when)-317(generating)-307(developmental)-275(mech-)]TJ T* [(anistic)-468(hypotheses)-468(may)-468(allow)-463(us)-463(to)-463(understand)-454(how)]TJ T* [(functionally)-307(relevant)-303(traits)-294(under)-294(strong)-289(selection)-266(have)]TJ T* [(evolved.)-523(Developmental)-514(genetic)-505(methods,)-495(combined)]TJ T* [(with)-656(rigorous)-647(phylogenetic)-642(methodologies)-624(\(Mabee,)]TJ T* [(2000;)-390(W)83(agner)]TJ /F6 1 Tf 6.133 0 TD [(et)-390(al.)]TJ /F4 1 Tf 2.1422 0 TD [(,)-390(2000\),)-390(give)-385(promise)-381(that)-376(evolu-)]TJ -8.2752 -1.11 TD [(tionar)-46(y)-339(developmental)-330(questions,)-326(posed)-330(from)-321(the)-312(time)]TJ T* [(of)-349(Dar)-46(win,)-335(can)-339(\256nally)-339(be)-344(tackled.)]TJ 7.0596 -2.06 TD (A)Tj 8 0 0 7.5 408.799 349.1 Tm (CKNOWLEDGMENTS)Tj 10.9 0 -0 10 334.899 333.5 Tm [(W)83(e)-349(wish)-349(to)-353(thank)-349(Ann)-349(Burke)-344(for)-349(providing)-344(helpful)]TJ -0.9999 -1.1101 TD [(comments)-257(on)-261(the)-257(manuscript.)-252(LPH)-252(is)-248(indebted)-243(to)-239(Karel)]TJ T* [(F)161(.)-344(Liem)-339(for)-335(his)-335(constant)-330(support)-330(during)-330(completion)-312(of)]TJ T* [(the)-321(functional)-321(morphological)-321(aspects)-312(of)-307(this)-307(study)28(.)-298(L)0(P)]TJ T* [(also)-422(wishes)-417(to)-422(thank)-422(Beth)-417(Brainerd)-413(for)-413(use)-413(of)-413(video)]TJ T* [(equipment)-417(and)-422(lab)-422(space)-417(as)-417(well)-422(as)-417(years)-413(of)-417(fruitful)]TJ T* [(discussions.)-472(W)83(e)-468(are)-468(especially)-468(grateful)-459(to)-468(Lisa)-454(Zac-)]TJ T* [(kowski,)-413(Ron)-422(Gordon,)-413(and)-422(members)-408(of)-417(the)-408(W)83(esleyan)]TJ T* [(University)-413(Animal)-404(Care)-408(facility)-404(for)-404(excellent)-395(care)-381(of)]TJ T* [(our)-257(zebra\256sh)-252(colony)28(.)-248(This)-248(work)-248(was)-243(supported)-239(by)-239(NSF)]TJ T* [(grant)-312(BSR-8818014)-312(to)-312(Karel)-303(F)161(.)-303(Liem)-298(and)-303(a)-298(Donoghue)]TJ T* [(Foundation)-509(Investigator)-509(Award)-505(and)-505(NIH)-505(grant)-495(R01)]TJ T* [(HD37509)-349(to)-344(SHD.)]TJ 8.633 -2.06 TD (R)Tj 8 0 0 7.5 425.35 179.7 Tm 0.001 Tc [(EFE)6(RENCES)]TJ 8.7 0 0 8 324 163.1 Tm 0 Tc [(Adriaens,)-356(D.)-351(and)-351(W)121(.)-356(V)81(erraes.)-345(1997.)-351(Ontogeny)-351(of)-351(the)-345(hyoid)-351(muscu-)]TJ 1.8391 -1.1375 TD [(lature)-247(in)-253(the)-247(African)-253(cat\256sh,)]TJ /F6 1 Tf 11.431 0 TD [(Clarias)-236(gariepinus)]TJ /F4 1 Tf 7.7471 0 TD [(\(Burchell,)-213(1822\))]TJ -19.1782 -1.1376 TD [(\(Siluroidei:)-322(Clariidae\).)-316(Zool.)-339(J.)-339(Linn.)-339(Soc.)-333(121:105\261128.)]TJ -1.8391 -1.1374 TD [(Anker)80(,)-339(G)0(.)-339(C)0(.)-339(1978.)-351(The)-345(morphology)-345(of)-345(the)-345(head)-351(muscles)-339(of)-339(a)-351(gen-)]TJ 1.8391 -1.1375 TD (eralized)Tj /F6 1 Tf 3.5632 0 TD (Haplochromis)Tj /F4 1 Tf 6.1207 0 TD (species:)Tj /F6 1 Tf 3.5632 0 TD [(H.)-397(elegans)]TJ /F4 1 Tf 4.4195 0 TD [(.)-397(Neth.)-391(J.)-397(Zool.)-397(28:)]TJ -17.6667 -1.1375 TD [(234)-57(\261271.)]TJ -1.8391 -1.1375 TD [(Arratia,)-287(G.)-287(and)-287(H.)-287(P)161(.)-282(Schultze.)-287(1990.)-276(The)-282(urohyal:)-276(Development)-259(and)]TJ 1.8391 -1.1375 TD [(homology)-345(within)-333(osteichthyans.)-322(J.)-339(Morph.)-333(203:247\261282.)]TJ -1.8391 -1.1375 TD [(Arthur)80(,)-339(W)121(.)-339(1997.)]TJ /F6 1 Tf 7.1782 0 TD [(The)-345(origin)-345(of)-339(body)-339(plans:)-333(A)-333(study)-333(in)-333(evolutionary)]TJ -5.3391 -1.1375 TD [(developmental)-695(biology.)]TJ /F4 1 Tf 10.4654 0 TD [(Cambridge)-695(University)-684(Press,)-667(Cam-)]TJ -10.4654 -1.1375 TD (bridge.)Tj -1.8391 -1.1375 TD [(Bader)80(,)-345(D.,)-351(T)132(.)-351(Masaki,)-345(and)-351(D.)-351(A.)-351(Fischman.)-345(1982.)-345(Immunochemical)]TJ ET endstream endobj 47 0 obj <>stream x50>ō:ؖ#8;B-PC)B.>4?SK"l&B4/h#1- HKVGzW ,:yXgnrUjF%`Y*(A^ˬ'<=\Dky'__$eN5 endstream endobj 48 0 obj <>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI]>>/Rotate 0/Type/Page>> endobj 49 0 obj [50 0 R 51 0 R 52 0 R] endobj 50 0 obj <>stream x+| endstream endobj 51 0 obj <>stream 0 0 0 0 k BX /GS2 gs EX 1 i 48 747 504 -10 re f 48 723 240 -660 re f 312 723 240 -660 re f BT /F4 1 Tf 10.9 0 -0 10 48 737 Tm 0 0 0 1 k 0 Tc [(230)-16858(L.)-349(P.)-344(H)]TJ 8 0 0 7.5 281.649 737 Tm (ERNA)Tj 2.2001 0.2399 TD 0 Tw (\302)Tj 0.525 -0.2399 TD -0.001 Tc [(ND)-4(EZ)]TJ /F6 1 Tf 8.1 0 0 7.5 328.299 737 Tm 0 Tc [(ET)-340(AL.)]TJ /F4 1 Tf 8.7 0 0 8 64 714 Tm [(analysis)-488(of)-488(myosin)-494(heavy)-494(chain)-494(during)-494(avian)-488(myogenesis)-477(in)]TJ 0 -1.125 TD [(vivo)-345(and)-345(in)-339(vitro.)-333(J.)-339(Cell)-339(Biol.)-339(95:763\261770.)]TJ -1.8391 -1.125 TD [(Barel,)-362(C.)-368(D.)-362(N.,)-368(F)161(.)-368(W)46(itte,)-362(and)-368(M.)-368(J.)-368(P)161(.)-368(van)-368(Oijen.)-362(1976.)-374(The)-368(shape)]TJ 1.8391 -1.125 TD [(of)-454(the)-454(skeletal)-448(elements)-448(in)-448(the)-448(head)-448(of)-448(a)-454(generalized)]TJ /F6 1 Tf 22.9253 0 TD (Haplo-)Tj -22.9253 -1.125 TD (chromis)Tj /F4 1 Tf 3.5172 0 TD (species:)Tj /F6 1 Tf 3.4713 0 TD [(H.)-299(elegans)]TJ /F4 1 Tf 4.6207 0 TD [(T)69(rewavas)-287(1933)-293(\(Pisces,)-264(Cichlidae\).)]TJ -11.6092 -1.125 TD [(Neth.)-339(J.)-339(Zool.)-333(26:163.)]TJ -1.8391 -1.125 TD [(Barresi,)-259(M.)-259(J.,)-264(H.)-253(L.)-259(Stickney)29(,)-253(and)-259(S.)-259(H.)-253(Devoto.)-253(2000.)-241(The)-247(zebra\256sh)]TJ 1.8391 -1.125 TD [(slow-muscle-omitted)-523(gene)-523(product)-511(is)-517(required)-511(for)-506(Hedgehog)]TJ T* [(signal)-379(transduction)-374(and)-374(the)-379(development)-374(of)-368(slow)-368(muscle)-368(iden-)]TJ T* [(tity)29(.)-339(Development)-328(127:2189)-57(\2612199.)]TJ -1.8391 -1.125 TD [(Bemis,)-339(W)121(.)-339(E.)-345(and)-345(G.)-339(V)132(.)-339(Lauder)80(.)-345(1986.)-339(Morphology)-339(and)-339(function)-328(of)]TJ 1.8391 -1.125 TD [(the)-517(feeding)-517(apparatus)-506(of)-506(the)-517(lung\256sh,)]TJ /F6 1 Tf 16.6494 0 TD [(Lepidosiren)-494(paradoxa)]TJ /F4 1 Tf -16.6494 -1.125 TD [(\(Dipnoi\).)-328(J.)-339(Morph.)-328(187:81\261108.)]TJ -1.8391 -1.125 TD [(Blagden,)-287(C.)-287(S.,)-287(P)161(.)-287(D.)-282(Currie,)-282(P)161(.)-282(W)121(.)-282(Ingham,)-276(and)-282(S.)-282(M.)-276(Hughes.)-253(1997.)]TJ 1.8391 -1.125 TD [(Notochord)-259(induction)-259(of)-253(zebra\256sh)-253(slow)-241(muscle)-247(mediated)-236(by)-236(Son-)]TJ T* [(ic)-345(hedgehog.)-339(Genes)-333(Dev)29(.)-339(11:2163\2612175.)]TJ -1.8391 -1.125 TD [(Burke,)-431(A.)-431(C.)-425(1989.)-431(Development)-425(of)-420(the)-420(turtle)-420(carapace\320implica-)]TJ 1.8391 -1.125 TD [(tions)-391(for)-391(the)-402(development)-397(of)-391(a)-397(novel)-402(bauplan.)-391(J.)-397(Morph.)-391(199:)]TJ T* (363\261378.)Tj -1.8391 -1.125 TD [(Chandrasekhar)80(,)-368(A.,)-374(C.)-368(B.)-374(Moens,)-368(J.)-368(T)132(.)-368(W)81(arren,)-368(C.)-374(B.)-368(Kimmel,)-356(and)]TJ 1.8391 -1.125 TD [(J.)-305(Y)132(.)-305(Kuwada.)-310(1997.)-299(Development)-305(of)-299(branchiomotor)-287(neurons)-282(in)]TJ T* [(zebra\256sh.)-328(Development)-328(124:2633\2612644.)]TJ -1.8391 -1.125 TD [(Crow)29(,)-316(M)0(.)-316(T)132(.)-316(and)-322(F)161(.)-322(E.)-316(Stockdale.)-310(1986.)-316(Myosin)-316(expression)-305(and)-299(spe-)]TJ 1.8391 -1.125 TD [(cialization)-408(among)-408(the)-402(earliest)-402(muscle)-402(\256bers)-391(of)-391(the)-402(developing)]TJ T* [(avian)-345(limb.)-333(Dev)29(.)-339(Biol.)-333(113:238\261254.)]TJ -1.8391 -1.125 TD [(Cubbage,)-259(C.)-264(C.)-253(and)-259(P)161(.)-259(M.)-259(Mabee.)-259(1996.)-247(Development)-253(of)-241(the)-241(cranium)]TJ 1.8391 -1.125 TD [(and)-351(paired)-345(\256ns)-339(in)-351(the)-345(zebra\256sh)]TJ /F6 1 Tf 13.069 0 TD [(Danio)-345(rerio)]TJ /F4 1 Tf 5.1839 0 TD [(\(Ostariophysi,)-305(Cy-)]TJ -18.2529 -1.125 TD [(prinidae\).)-328(J.)-339(Morph.)-333(229:121\261160.)]TJ -1.8391 -1.125 TD [(Currie,)-293(P)161(.)-293(D.)-293(and)-299(P)161(.)-293(W)121(.)-293(Ingham.)-293(1996.)-287(Induction)-287(of)-282(a)-282(speci\256c)-270(muscle)]TJ 1.8391 -1.125 TD [(cell)-385(type)-391(by)-391(a)-385(hedgehog-like)-385(protein)-385(in)-385(zebra\256sh.)-379(Nature)-362(382:)]TJ T* [(452\261)-57(455.)]TJ -1.8391 -1.125 TD [(Devoto,)-345(S.)-339(H.,)-345(E.)-339(Melancon,)-345(J.)-345(S.)-339(Eisen,)-339(and)-339(M.)-339(W)81(ester)-11(\256eld.)-305(1996.)]TJ 1.8391 -1.125 TD [(Identi\256cation)-397(of)-391(separate)-391(slow)-385(and)-397(fast)-385(muscle)-385(precursor)-368(cells)]TJ T* [(in)-534(vivo,)-529(prior)-529(to)-534(somite)-534(for)-6(mation.)-523(Development)-506(122:3371\261)]TJ T* (3380.)Tj -1.8391 -1.125 TD [(Du,)-460(S.)-460(J.,)-460(S.)-460(H.)-465(Devoto,)-460(M.)-465(W)81(ester)-11(\256eld,)-460(and)-465(R.)-465(T)132(.)-465(Moon.)-460(1997.)]TJ 1.8391 -1.125 TD [(Positive)-563(and)-563(negative)-563(regulation)-563(of)-557(muscle)-552(cell)-557(identity)-552(by)]TJ T* [(members)-333(of)-328(the)-333(hedgehog)-328(and)-328(TGF-beta)-322(gene)-316(families.)-310(J.)-305(Cell.)]TJ T* [(Biol.)-339(139:145\261156.)]TJ -1.8391 -1.125 TD [(Easter)80(,)-333(S)0(.)-339(S)0(.)-339(and)-339(G.)-333(N.)-333(Nicola.)-333(1996.)-328(The)-333(development)-328(of)-322(vision)-316(in)]TJ 1.8391 -1.125 TD [(the)-345(zebra\256sh)-328(\()]TJ /F6 1 Tf 5.8333 0 TD [(Danio)-333(rerio)]TJ /F4 1 Tf 4.8333 0 TD [(\).)-322(Dev)29(.)-339(Biol.)-339(180:646\261)-34(663.)]TJ -12.5057 -1.125 TD [(Ekker)80(,)-414(S)0(.)-414(C.,)-414(A.)-414(R.)-414(Ungar)80(,)-414(P)161(.)-420(Greenstein,)-420(D.)-420(P)161(.)-414(von)-420(Kessler)80(,)-408(J)0(.)-402(A)0(.)]TJ 1.8391 -1.125 TD [(Porter)80(,)-270(R)0(.)-264(T)132(.)-264(Moon,)-264(and)-270(P)161(.)-264(A.)-264(Beachy)29(.)-253(1995.)-259(Patter)-6(ning)-236(activities)]TJ 0 -1.1376 TD [(of)-259(vertebrate)-253(hedgehog)-253(proteins)-253(in)-247(the)-247(developing)-247(eye)-241(and)-241(brain.)]TJ T* [(Curr)80(.)-333(Biol.)-339(5:944)-57(\261955.)]TJ -1.8391 -1.1374 TD [(Fuiman,)-391(L.)-391(A.)-391(1986.)-397(Burst-swimming)-391(per)-11(for)-6(mance)-385(of)-379(lar)-46(val)-374(zebra)]TJ 1.8391 -1.1375 TD [(danios)-420(and)-425(the)-420(effects)-425(of)-420(diel)-425(temperature)-414(\257uctuations.)-391(T)69(rans.)]TJ T* [(Am.)-339(Fish)-333(Soc.)-339(115:143\261148.)]TJ -1.8391 -1.1376 TD [(Fuiman,)-253(L.)-253(A.)-253(and)-259(P)161(.)-259(A.)-259(W)81(ebb.)-253(1988.)-247(Ontogeny)-253(of)-241(routine)-236(swimming)]TJ 1.8391 -1.1375 TD [(activity)-454(and)-454(per)-11(for)-6(mance)-448(in)-448(zebra)-442(danios)-443(\(T)81(eleostei:)-420(Cyprini-)]TJ T* [(dae\).)-339(Anim.)-333(Behav)29(.)-339(36:250)-57(\261261.)]TJ -1.8391 -1.1375 TD [(Gibb,)-339(A.)-339(C.)-328(1997.)-333(Do)-333(\257at\256sh)-333(feed)-328(like)-328(other)-322(\256shes?)-316(A)-310(comparative)]TJ 1.8391 -1.1375 TD [(study)-264(of)-259(percomorph)-264(prey-capture)-259(kinematics.)-247(J.)-253(Exp.)-247(Biol.)-241(200:)]TJ T* (2841\2612859.)Tj -1.8391 -1.1374 TD [(Gilbert,)-374(S.)-379(F)161(.)0(,)-374(G)0(.)-379(A)0(.)-379(Loredo,)-379(A.)-379(Brukman,)-374(and)-374(A.)-368(C.)-379(Burke.)-368(2001.)]TJ 1.8391 -1.1375 TD [(Morphogenesis)-345(of)-339(the)-345(turtle)-345(shell:)-339(The)-339(development)-328(of)-328(a)-328(novel)]TJ T* [(structure)-328(in)-339(tetrapod)-333(evolution.)-333(Evol.)-339(Dev)29(.)-339(3:47\26158.)]TJ -1.8391 -1.1375 TD [(Gilbert,)-443(S.)-443(F)161(.)0(,)-437(J)0(.)-443(M)0(.)-443(Opitz,)-443(and)-442(R.)-443(A.)-443(Raff.)-437(1996.)-437(Resynthesizing)]TJ 1.8391 -1.1376 TD [(evolutionar)-46(y)-402(and)-408(developmental)-397(biology)29(.)-402(Dev)29(.)-402(Biol.)-391(173:357\261)]TJ T* (372.)Tj -1.8391 -1.1375 TD [(Hall,)-477(B.)-483(K.)-483(1998.)]TJ /F6 1 Tf 8.0287 0 TD [(Evolutionary)-483(developmental)-477(biology.)]TJ /F4 1 Tf 15.7299 0 TD (Chapman)Tj -21.9195 -1.1375 TD [(and)-345(Hall,)-333(New)-339(Y)81(ork.)]TJ -1.8391 -1.1375 TD [(Har)-46(vey)29(,)-391(P)161(.)-391(H)0(.)-391(and)-391(M.)-385(D.)-391(Pagel.)-391(1991.)]TJ /F6 1 Tf 16.2184 0 TD [(The)-385(comparative)-385(method)-379(in)]TJ -14.3793 -1.1376 TD [(evolutionary)-333(biology.)]TJ /F4 1 Tf 8.9713 0 TD [(Oxford)-333(University)-322(Press,)-322(Oxford.)]TJ -10.8103 -1.1374 TD [(Her)-6(na)]TJ 2.0632 0 TD [(\302)-52(ndez,)-299(L.)-305(P)161(.)-299(2000.)-305(Intraspeci\256c)-299(scaling)-293(of)-287(feeding)-287(mechanics)-270(in)]TJ -0.2241 -1.1375 TD [(an)-448(ontogenetic)-442(series)-437(of)-437(zebra\256sh,)]TJ /F6 1 Tf 14.7816 0 TD [(Danio)-442(rerio)]TJ /F4 1 Tf 4.9425 0 TD [(.)-431(J)0(.)-437(Exp.)-437(Biol.)]TJ -19.7241 -1.1375 TD (203:3033\2613043.)Tj -1.8391 -1.1375 TD [(Houde,)-471(E.)-471(D.)-471(and)-477(R.)-471(C.)-477(Schekter)80(.)-471(1980.)-477(Feeding)-477(by)-477(marine)-465(\256sh)]TJ 1.8391 -1.1375 TD [(lar)-46(vae:)-580(Developmental)-580(and)-580(functional)-575(responses.)-557(Env)29(.)-563(Biol.)]TJ T* [(Fish.)-333(5:315\261334.)]TJ -1.8391 -1.1375 TD [(Hunter)80(,)-443(J)0(.)-443(R)0(.)-437(and)-442(K.)-437(M.)-431(Coyne.)-443(1982.)-437(The)-442(onset)-431(of)-437(schooling)-437(in)]TJ 1.8391 -1.1375 TD [(norther)-6(n)-379(anchovy)-379(lar)-46(vae)]TJ /F6 1 Tf 10.4023 0 TD [(Engraulis)-374(mordax)]TJ /F4 1 Tf 7.3734 0 TD [(.)-379(Calif.)-368(Coop.)-379(Oce-)]TJ -17.7757 -1.1375 TD [(anic)-345(Fish.)-328(Invest.)-333(Rept.)-333(23:246\261251.)]TJ 28.5057 81.375 TD [(Kimmel,)-362(C.)-356(B.,)-356(C.)-356(T)132(.)-368(Miller)80(,)-356(and)-362(C.)-356(B.)-368(Moens.)-362(2001.)-356(Speci\256cation)]TJ 1.8391 -1.125 TD [(and)-374(morphogenesis)-368(of)-362(the)-368(zebra\256sh)-368(lar)-46(val)-362(head)-362(skeleton.)-351(Dev)29(.)]TJ T* [(Biol.)-339(233:239)-57(\261257.)]TJ -1.8391 -1.125 TD [(Krauss,)-333(S.,)-328(J.)-328(P)161(.)-328(Concordet,)-322(and)-328(P)161(.)-322(W)121(.)-322(Ingham.)-316(1993.)-310(A)-316(functionally)]TJ 1.8391 -1.125 TD [(conser)-46(ved)-276(homolog)-276(of)-270(the)]TJ /F6 1 Tf 10.8046 0 TD (Drosophila)Tj /F4 1 Tf 4.8276 0 TD [(segment)-270(polarity)-259(gene)]TJ /F6 1 Tf 9.1148 0 TD (hh)Tj /F4 1 Tf -24.747 -1.125 TD [(is)-333(expressed)-333(in)-333(tissues)-328(with)-333(polarizing)-328(activity)-322(in)-322(zebra\256sh)-293(em-)]TJ T* [(br)-46(yos.)-333(Cell)-339(75:1431\2611444.)]TJ -1.8391 -1.125 TD [(Lauder)80(,)-276(G)0(.)-276(V)132(.)-282(1980)]TJ /F6 1 Tf 7.6437 0 TD (a)Tj /F4 1 Tf 0.5 0 TD [(.)-276(Hydrodynamics)-270(of)-270(prey)-276(capture)-270(by)-264(teleost)-247(\256sh-)]TJ -6.3046 -1.125 TD (es.)Tj /F6 1 Tf 1.4023 0 TD [(Bio\257uid)-322(mechanics)]TJ /F4 1 Tf 7.7069 0 TD [(,)-316(pp.)-322(161\261181.)-316(Plenum)-310(Press,)-305(New)-299(Y)81(ork.)]TJ -10.9483 -1.125 TD [(Lauder)80(,)-397(G)0(.)-397(V)132(.)-402(1980)]TJ /F6 1 Tf 8.0056 0 TD (b)Tj /F4 1 Tf 0.5001 0 TD [(.)-402(The)-408(suction)-402(feeding)-402(mechanism)-396(in)-391(sun\256shes)]TJ -6.6667 -1.125 TD (\()Tj /F6 1 Tf 0.3276 0 TD (Lepomis)Tj /F4 1 Tf 3.3908 0 TD [(\):)-322(An)-339(experimental)-322(analysis.)-328(J.)-339(Exp.)-339(Biol.)-339(88:49)-57(\26172.)]TJ -5.5575 -1.125 TD [(Lauder)80(,)-316(G)0(.)-316(V)132(.)-322(1982.)-316(Patter)-6(ns)-316(of)-316(evolution)-316(in)-316(the)-316(feeding)-299(mechanism)]TJ 1.8391 -1.125 TD [(of)-345(actinopter)-46(ygian)-322(\256shes.)-328(Amer)80(.)-333(Zool.)-333(22:275\261285.)]TJ -1.8391 -1.125 TD [(Lauder)80(,)-471(G)0(.)-471(V)132(.)-477(1985.)-471(Aquatic)-477(feeding)-477(in)-471(lower)-465(vertebrates.)]TJ /F6 1 Tf 25.1609 0 TD (In)Tj /F4 1 Tf 1.2931 0 TD (M.)Tj -24.6149 -1.125 TD [(Hidebrand,)-322(D.)-316(M.)-316(Bramble,)-310(K.)-310(F)161(.)-310(Liem,)-310(and)-316(D.)-310(B.)-305(W)81(ake)-310(\(eds.\),)]TJ /F6 1 Tf T* [(Functional)-339(vertebrate)-333(morphology,)]TJ /F4 1 Tf 14.5805 0 TD [(pp.)-333(230)-57(\261261.)-322(Har)-46(vard)-310(Uni-)]TJ -14.5805 -1.125 TD [(versity)-333(Press,)-322(Cambridge.)]TJ -1.8391 -1.125 TD [(Lauder)80(,)-316(G)0(.)-316(V)132(.)-322(and)-322(L.)-322(E.)-316(Lanyon.)-310(1980.)-316(Functional)-310(anatomy)-310(of)-299(feed-)]TJ 1.8391 -1.125 TD [(ing)-351(in)-356(the)-351(bluegill)-345(sun\256sh,)]TJ /F6 1 Tf 11.1665 0 TD [(Lepomis)-345(macrochirus)]TJ /F4 1 Tf 8.7875 0 TD (:)Tj /F6 1 Tf 0.6207 0 TD [(In)-345(vivo)]TJ /F4 1 Tf 3.1839 0 TD (mea-)Tj -23.7586 -1.125 TD [(surement)-333(of)-339(bone)-339(strain.)-328(J.)-339(Exp.)-339(Biol.)-339(84:33\26155.)]TJ -1.8391 -1.125 TD [(Lauder)80(,)-316(G)0(.)-316(V)132(.,)-310(A.)-310(M.)-310(Leroi,)-316(and)-316(M.)-310(R.)-316(Rose.)-305(1993.)-310(Adaptations)-287(and)]TJ 1.8391 -1.125 TD [(histor)-46(y)29(.)-333(TREE)-339(8:294)-57(\261297.)]TJ -1.8391 -1.125 TD [(Lauder)80(,)-322(G)0(.)-322(V)132(.)-328(and)-328(K.)-328(F)161(.)-316(Liem.)-322(1981.)-316(Prey)-316(capture)-310(by)]TJ /F6 1 Tf 21.77 0 TD (Luciocephalus)Tj -19.9309 -1.125 TD (pulcher)Tj /F4 1 Tf 3.0516 0 TD [(:)-460(Implications)-454(for)-448(models)-448(of)-448(jaw)-454(protrusion)-442(in)-442(teleost)]TJ -3.0516 -1.125 TD [(\256shes.)-333(Env)29(.)-339(Biol.)-339(Fish.)-328(6:257\261268.)]TJ -1.8391 -1.125 TD [(Lauder)80(,)-385(G)0(.)-385(V)132(.)-391(and)-397(H.)-391(B.)-391(Shaffer)80(.)-385(1993.)-391(Design)-385(of)-385(feeding)-379(systems)]TJ 1.8391 -1.125 TD [(in)-305(aquatic)-305(vertebrates:)-299(Major)-287(patter)-6(ns)-293(and)-287(their)-282(evolutionar)-46(y)-264(in-)]TJ T* (terpretations.)Tj /F6 1 Tf 5.569 0 TD (In)Tj /F4 1 Tf 1.1608 0 TD [(J.)-322(Hanken)-322(and)-322(B.)-316(K.)-322(Hall)-316(\(eds.\),)]TJ /F6 1 Tf 13.5288 0 TD [(The)-310(skull,)]TJ /F4 1 Tf 4.2414 0 TD (pp.)Tj -24.5 -1.125 TD [(113\261149.)-345(University)-322(of)-339(Chicago)-339(Press,)-328(Chicago.)]TJ -1.8391 -1.125 TD [(Liem,)-374(K.)-374(F)161(.)-368(1974.)-374(Evolutionar)-46(y)-368(strategies)-362(and)-368(morphological)-351(inno-)]TJ 1.8391 -1.125 TD [(vations:)-333(Cichlid)-339(phar)-46(yngeal)-333(jaws.)-328(Syst.)-333(Zool.)-339(22:425\261)-57(441.)]TJ -1.8391 -1.125 TD [(Liem,)-402(K.)-397(F)161(.)-391(1978.)-402(Modulator)-46(y)-397(multiplicity)-391(in)-397(the)-391(functional)-379(reper)46(-)]TJ 1.8391 -1.125 TD [(toire)-379(of)-374(the)-379(feeding)-379(mechanism)-374(in)-374(cichlid)-374(\256shes.)-368(I.)-362(Piscivores.)]TJ T* [(J.)-339(Morph.)-333(158:323\261360.)]TJ -1.8391 -1.125 TD [(Liem,)-276(K.)-276(F)161(.)-264(1979.)-270(Modulator)-46(y)-270(multiplicity)-264(in)-264(the)-259(feeding)-241(mechanism)]TJ 1.8391 -1.125 TD [(in)-391(cichlid)-391(\256shes,)-391(as)-385(exempli\256ed)-385(by)-385(the)-379(invertebrate)-374(pickers)-374(of)]TJ T* [(Lake)-345(T)81(anganyika.)-333(J.)-339(Zool.)-333(189:93\261123.)]TJ -1.8391 -1.125 TD [(Liem,)-345(K.)-345(F)161(.)-339(1991.)-345(A)-339(functional)-339(approach)-339(to)-333(the)-333(development)-328(of)-316(the)]TJ 1.8391 -1.125 TD [(head)-264(of)-259(teleosts:)-259(Implications)-253(on)-253(constructional)-241(morphology)-224(and)]TJ T* (constraints.)Tj /F6 1 Tf 4.8793 0 TD (In)Tj /F4 1 Tf 1.1379 0 TD [(N.)-299(Scmidt-Kittler)-287(and)-293(K.)-287(V)81(ogel)-287(\(eds.\),)]TJ /F6 1 Tf 15.747 0 TD (Construc-)Tj -21.7643 -1.125 TD [(tional)-259(morphology)-253(and)-259(evolution,)]TJ /F4 1 Tf 13.6609 0 TD [(pp.)-259(231\261249.)-247(Springer)46(-V)81(erlag,)]TJ -13.6609 -1.125 TD (Berlin.)Tj -1.8391 -1.125 TD [(Liem,)-299(K.)-299(F)161(.)-293(1993.)-299(Ecomorphology)-299(of)-293(the)-293(teleostean)-293(skull.)]TJ /F6 1 Tf 23.5689 0 TD (In)Tj /F4 1 Tf 1.1151 0 TD [(J.)-276(Han-)]TJ -22.8448 -1.1376 TD [(ken)-362(and)-368(B.)-362(K.)-362(Hall,)-356(\(eds.\),)]TJ /F6 1 Tf 11.4137 0 TD [(The)-356(skull,)]TJ /F4 1 Tf 4.3506 0 TD [(pp.)-362(422\261)-57(452.)-362(University)]TJ -15.7643 -1.1375 TD [(of)-345(Chicago)-339(Press,)-322(Chicago.)]TJ -1.8391 -1.1374 TD [(Liem,)-259(K.)-259(F)161(.)-247(and)-253(J.)-253(W)121(.)-247(M.)-253(Osse.)-241(1975.)-247(Biological)-241(versatility)29(,)-213(evolution)]TJ 1.8391 -1.1375 TD [(and)-356(food)-356(resource)-356(exploitation)-351(in)-351(African)-351(cichlid)-345(\256shes.)-328(Amer)80(.)]TJ T* [(Zool.)-339(15:427\261)-57(454.)]TJ -1.8391 -1.1376 TD [(Liem,)-379(K.)-379(F)161(.)-374(and)-379(S.)-379(L.)-379(Sanderson.)-374(1986.)-374(The)-379(phar)-46(yngeal)-368(jaw)-368(appa-)]TJ 1.8391 -1.1375 TD [(ratus)-385(of)-385(labrid)-391(\256shes:)-391(A)-385(functional)-379(morphological)-374(perspective.)]TJ T* [(J.)-339(Morph.)-333(187:143\261158.)]TJ -1.8391 -1.1375 TD [(Liem,)-333(K.)-333(F)161(.)-328(and)-333(A.)-333(P)161(.)-333(Summers.)-328(2000.)-322(Integration)-316(of)-310(versatile)-293(func-)]TJ 1.8391 -1.1375 TD [(tional)-557(design,)-552(population)-557(ecology)29(,)-557(ontogeny)-557(and)-563(phylogeny)29(.)]TJ T* [(Neth.)-339(J.)-339(Zool.)-333(50:245\261259.)]TJ -1.8391 -1.1374 TD [(Linsenmeyer)80(,)-431(T)132(.)-431(F)161(.)-420(and)-431(M.)-425(J.)-425(C.)-425(Hendrix.)-425(1980.)-420(Monoclonal)-420(anti-)]TJ 1.8391 -1.1375 TD [(bodies)-420(to)-425(connective)-420(tissue)-420(macromolecules:)-408(type)-408(II)-402(collagen.)]TJ T* [(Biochem.)-339(Biophys.)-333(Res.)-339(Comm.)-333(92:440)-57(\261)-57(446.)]TJ -1.8391 -1.1375 TD [(Mabee,)-391(P)161(.)-385(M.)-385(2000.)-397(Developmental)-385(data)-391(and)-391(phylogenetic)-379(system-)]TJ 1.8391 -1.1376 TD [(atics:)-454(Evolution)-460(of)-454(the)-460(vertebrate)-460(limb.)-454(Amer)80(.)-448(Zool.)-448(40:789)-57(\261)]TJ T* (800.)Tj -1.8391 -1.1375 TD [(Mascarello,)-460(F)161(.)0(,)-454(A)0(.)-454(Rowlerson,)-454(G.)-448(Radaelli,)-448(P)161(.-A.)-448(Scapolo,)-448(and)-442(A.)]TJ 1.8391 -1.1375 TD [(V)81(egetti.)-345(1995.)-339(Differentiation)-345(and)-345(growth)-345(of)-339(muscle)-339(in)-339(the)-328(\256sh)]TJ /F6 1 Tf T* [(Sparus)-264(aurata)]TJ /F4 1 Tf 5.977 0 TD [(\(L.\):)-264(Myosin)-264(expression)-259(and)-259(organization)-247(of)-241(\256bre)]TJ -5.977 -1.1376 TD [(types)-282(in)-287(lateral)-282(muscle)-282(from)-282(hatching)-282(to)-276(adult.)-276(J.)-264(Mus.)-270(Res.)-253(Cell)]TJ T* [(Motility)-333(16:213\261222.)]TJ -1.8391 -1.1375 TD [(Neuhauss,)-379(S.)-385(C.,)-385(L.)-385(Solnica-Krezel,)-379(A.)-379(F)161(.)-385(Schier)80(,)-379(F)161(.)-374(Zwartkruis,)-351(D.)]TJ 1.8391 -1.1375 TD [(L.)-483(Stemple,)-483(J.)-483(Malicki,)-477(S.)-477(Abdelilah,)-477(D.)-477(Y)132(.)-471(Stainier)80(,)-465(and)-460(W)121(.)]TJ T* [(Driever)80(.)-345(1996.)-339(Mutations)-339(affecting)-339(craniofacial)-328(development)-316(in)]TJ T* [(zebra\256sh.)-328(Development)-328(123:357\261367.)]TJ -1.8391 -1.1375 TD [(Noden,)-351(D.)-356(M.)-356(1986.)-351(Patter)-6(ning)-351(of)-345(avian)-351(craniofacial)-345(muscles.)-322(Dev)29(.)]TJ 1.8391 -1.1375 TD [(Biol.)-339(116:347\261356.)]TJ -1.8391 -1.1375 TD [(Noden,)-460(D.)-465(M.,)-460(R.)-465(Marcucio,)-454(A.)-454(G.)-460(Bor)-46(ycki,)-454(and)-465(C.)-460(P)161(.)-460(Emerson.)]TJ 1.8391 -1.1375 TD 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[(of)-465(early)-460(regulator)-46(y)-460(gene)-460(expression)-454(and)-454(myosin)-454(heavy)-454(chain)]TJ 0 -1.1375 TD [(synthesis.)-328(Dev)29(.)-339(Dyn.)-333(216:96\261112.)]TJ -1.8391 -1.1376 TD [(Osse,)-305(J.)-305(W)121(.)-305(M.,)-299(J.)-305(G.)-305(M.)-305(van)-305(der)-293(Boogart,)-293(G.)-299(M.)-299(J.)-293(van)-293(Snik,)-287(L.)-282(van)]TJ 1.8391 -1.1374 TD [(der)-408(Sluys.)-408(1997.)-408(Priorities)-402(during)-408(early)-402(growth)-402(of)-397(\256sh)-402(lar)-46(vae.)]TJ T* [(Aquaculture.)-328(155:249)-57(\261258.)]TJ -1.8391 -1.1374 TD [(Otten,)-316(E.)-322(1983.)-316(The)-316(jaw)-316(mechanism)-316(during)-316(growth)-310(of)-305(a)-305(generalized)]TJ /F6 1 Tf 1.8391 -1.1375 TD (Haplochromis)Tj /F4 1 Tf 6.1782 0 TD (species:)Tj /F6 1 Tf 3.6264 0 TD [(Haplochromis)-454(elegans)]TJ /F4 1 Tf 9.6839 0 TD [(T)69(rewavas)-437(1933)]TJ -19.4885 -1.1376 TD [(\(Pisces,)-322(Cichlidae\).)-328(Neth.)-333(J.)-339(Zool.)-339(33:55\26198.)]TJ -1.8391 -1.1374 TD [(Patruna,)-443(M.,)-448(G.)-443(Radaelli,)-437(F)161(.)-443(Mascarello,)-437(and)-442(C.)-443(M.)-431(D.)-437(Car)-6(nevali.)]TJ 1.8391 -1.1376 TD [(1998.)-287(Muscle)-287(growth)-287(in)-282(response)-282(to)-282(changing)-276(demands)-270(of)-264(func-)]TJ 0 -1.1499 TD [(tions)-282(in)-287(the)-287(teleost)]TJ /F6 1 Tf 7.6954 0 TD [(Sparus)-282(aurata)]TJ /F4 1 Tf 6.0115 0 TD [(\(L.\))-276(during)-270(development)-259(from)]TJ -13.7069 -1.15 TD [(hatching)-339(to)-345(juvenile.)-333(Anat.)-333(Embr)-46(yol.)-328(198:487\261504.)]TJ -1.8391 -1.15 TD [(Piotrowski,)-345(T)132(.)-339(and)-345(C.)-345(Nusslein-V)81(olhard.)-345(2000.)-339(The)-339(endoder)-6(m)-328(plays)]TJ 1.8391 -1.1501 TD [(an)-259(important)-259(role)-253(in)-253(patter)-6(ning)-253(the)-241(segmented)-241(phar)-46(yngeal)-230(region)]TJ T* [(in)-345(zebra\256sh)-328(\()]TJ /F6 1 Tf 5.3908 0 TD [(Danio)-333(rerio)]TJ /F4 1 Tf 4.8333 0 TD [(\).)-328(Dev)29(.)-333(Biol.)-339(225:339)-57(\261356.)]TJ -12.0632 -1.1499 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